Andrographolide inhibits the activation of spinal microglia and ameliorates mechanical allodynia

  • Impact factors: 3.6
  • Publication: METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE
  • Author:Wang Dan, Zheng Yongjian, Xie Junjing, Yu Wenwen, Lu Zhongteng, Zhang Wenping, Hu Yanling, Fu Jianyuan, Sheng Qing, Lv Zhengbing
  • DOI citation-doi:10.1007/s11011-023-01325-0
  • Date:2023-11-18

Andrographolide (Andro), a labdane diterpene, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been used to treat numerous inflammatory diseases. Novel findings revealed that Andro might be vital in regulating pain. However, the contribution of Andro to chronic inflammatory pain has yet to be determined, and its underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. In this study, we observed that Andro attenuated mechanical allodynia in inflammatory pain mice induced by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the right hind paws. This analgesic effect of Andro is mainly dependent on its inhibition of microglial overactivation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-1β) in lumbar spinal cords of inflammatory pain model mice. More importantly, our data in vivo and in vitro revealed a negative role for Andro in regulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, which might contribute to the inhibition of spinal microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokines production, and the improvement of paw withdrawal thresholds in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain evoked by CFA. We further found the potential interaction of Andro with TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 heterodimer using molecular modeling, implying that TLR4 might be a potential target for Andro to exert an analgesic effect. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the modulation of spinal microglial activation by Andro might be substantially conducive to managing chronic pain triggered by neuroinflammation.

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