The Impact of Dipyridamole on Disease-Associated Microglia Phenotypic Transformation in White Matter Lesions Induced by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

  • Impact factors: 4.4
  • Publication: NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH
  • Author:Cheng Wenchao, Wang Yuhan, Zhang Lan, Cheng Chang, Chen Xiuying, Huang Wen
  • DOI citation-doi:10.1007/s11064-023-04066-9
  • Date:2023-12-15

White matter lesions (WMLs) resulting from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) are the leading cause of vascular dementia (VaD). This study aimed to investigate whether dipyridamole could alleviate WMLs by regulating the phenotype of disease-associated microglia (DAM) through equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (ENT2) and adenosine A2A receptor (Adora2a) and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. CCH rat models were constructed to mimic VaD. Morris water maze and Luxol Fast Blue staining were employed to assess cognitive function and quantify the severity of WMLs, respectively. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to analyze the activation of glial cells and the phenotypic transformation of DAM. Additionally, levels of ENT2, proteins in the NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The results indicated that dipyridamole diminished the activation and proliferation of microglia and astrocytes, increased the expression of myelin basic protein and ameliorated WMLs and cognitive decline in CCH rats. Further study revealed that dipyridamole decreased the expression of ENT2 and inhibited the activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, which ultimately converted DAM to anti-inflammatory phenotype and suppressed the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in WMLs. However, Adora2a inhibitor (SCH58261) attenuated above effects. Our study demonstrates that dipyridamole facilitates the conversion of DAM to the anti-inflammatory phenotype through ENT2/Adora2a pathway and inhibits the activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, thereby alleviating neuroinflammation in WMLs. The current findings establish the basis for using dipyridamole to treat VaD.

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