Guiqi Baizhu prescription ameliorates cytarabine-induced intestinal mucositis by targeting JAK2 to inhibit M1 macrophage polarization

  • Impact factors: 7.419
  • Publication: BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY
  • Author:Wei Chu, Ya-ling Li, Jun-jie Li, Jia Lin, Mi Li, Jiao Wang, Jian-zheng He, Yue-mei Zhang, Juan Yao, Xiao-jie Jin, Hui Cai, Yong-qi Liu
  • DOI citation-doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2023.114902
  • Date:2023-05-18

Background Intestinal mucositis (IM) is characterized by damage to the intestinal mucosa resulting from inhibition of epithelial cell division and loss of renewal capacity following anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cytarabine (Ara-C), the main chemotherapy drug for the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma, is a frequent cause of IM. Guiqi Baizhu prescription (GQBZP) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Purpose To determine if GQBZP can ameliorate Ara-C induced IM and identify and characterize the pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Study design and methods IM was induced in mice with Ara-C and concurrently treated with orally administered GQBZP. Body weight and food intake was monitored, with HE staining to calculate ileal histomorphometric scoring and villus length/crypt depth. Immunoblotting was used to detect intestinal tissue inflammatory factors. M1 macrophages (M1) were labeled with CD86 by flow cytometry and iNOS + F4/80 by immunofluorescence. Virtual screening was used to find potentially active compounds in GQBZP that targeted JAK2. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells were skewed to M1 macrophage polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) and treated orally with GQBZP or potential active compounds. M1 was labeled with CD86 by flow cytometry and iNOS by immunofluorescence. ELISA was used to detect inflammatory factor expression. Active compounds against JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT1 and p-STAT1 were identified by western blotting and HCS fluorescence. Molecular dynamics simulations and pharmacokinetic predictions were carried out on representative active compounds. Results Experimental results with mice in vivo suggest that GQBZP significantly attenuated Ara-C-induced ileal damage and release of pro-inflammatory factors by inhibiting macrophage polarization to M1. Molecular docking was used to identify potentially active compounds in GQBZP that targeted JAK2, a key factor in macrophage polarization to M1. By examining the main components of each herb and applying Lipinski’s rules, ten potentially active compounds were identified. In vitro experimental results suggested that all 10 compounds of GQBZP targeted JAK2 and could inhibit M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells treated with LPS and INF-γ. Among them, acridine and senkyunolide A down-regulated the expression of JAK2 and STAT1. MD simulations revealed that acridine and senkyunolide A were stable in the active site of JAK2 and exhibited good interactions with the surrounding amino acids. Conclusions GQBZP can ameliorate Ara-C-induced IM by reducing macrophage polarization to M1, and acridine and senkyunolide A are representative active compounds in GQBZP that target JAK2 to inhibit M1 polarization. Targeting JAK2 to regulate M1 polarization may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for IM.

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