Raf/MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway Is Involved in the Inhibition of Glioma Cell Proliferation and Invasion in the Ketogenic Microe-nvironment

  • Impact factors: 2.4
  • Publication: Current Medical Science
  • Author:Fan Wen-tao,Liu Xiao-fei,Liang Ri-chu
  • DOI citation-doi:10.1007/s11596-023-2724-7
  • Date:2023-07-27

Objective A high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used to treat malignant glioma, in which the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is overactivated. However, whether the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in the therapeutic effect of ketone bodies remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of a major ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA), on the proliferation and metastasis of malignant glioblastoma cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods Two human malignant glioblastoma cell lines (U87 and U251) were treated with different concentrations of 3-HBA with or without the Raf inhibitor PAF C-16 for 24 h. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion, and phospholipase D1 (PLD1) activity were determined. Protein and gene expression levels of Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway members were examined. Results 3-HBA significantly decreased cell proliferation, invasion, and intracellular PLD1 activity in both U87 and U251 glioblastoma cell lines. 3-HBA treatment significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase and decreased the proportion of cells in S phase in U87 cells. In the U251 line, the proportion of treated cells in S phase was increased and proportion of cells in G2 was decreased. 3-HBA treatment also significantly decreased the protein expression levels of Raf, MEK, p-MEK, ERK, p-ERK, and PLD1 while increasing p53 expression; an effect that was similar to treatment with the Raf inhibitor. Co-treatment of 3-HBA with the Raf inhibitor further enhanced the effects of the 3-HBA in both cell lines. Conclusion We confirmed that a ketogenic microenvironment can inhibit glioma cell proliferation and invasion by downregulating the expression of PLD1 through the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

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